Costituzione della Repubblica Italiana (Italia) (Italian Edition)
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Ministro [Minister] : constitutional organ of the central Administration of the State.
It has political and administrative functions and it contributes to the policies of Government in a specific sector of administrative activity. Ministro senza portafoglio [Minister without Portfolio] : Minister invested with the political-constitutional authority of member of the Government as a collegial organ.
He is not, however, at the head of a Ministry but is assigned to carry out tasks of political-administrative nature, which mostly consist in initiative, coordination and inspection functions. Norma giuridica [Legal Norm] : abstract, general and prescriptive rule whose breach involves a sanction. Norma interna [Internal Norm] : regulation made by a Public Administration regarding the carrying out of its functions and the way in which its activities are run.
Organizzazione per la Cooperazione e lo Sviluppo Economico [O. Ordinamento giudiziario [Judicial System] : set of norms that regulates judicial functions and the status of the people to which they are assigned. Its main functions are of a legislative, inspection and policy nature. Parlamento Europeo [European Parliament] : legislative organ of the European Union, made up of the representatives of the people of the Member-States who are elected, as from , every five years by direct universal suffrage.
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Prassi amministrativa [Administrative Practice] : a succession of acts of similar kind carried out by the Public Administration, even without the belief they are obligatory. It is not a source of Law and has no effect on legal system, but it can be used for the interpretation of administrative acts. Prassi costituzionale [Constitutional Practice] : repeated or customary actions with which constitutional organs concretely carry out their assigned tasks. Prefetto [Prefect] : representative of the Government in the Provinces.
Nominated by a decree of the President of the Italian Republic on the suggestion of the Interior Minister and after a Cabinet consultation, he has functions that cover all branches of the State administration and, through the Provincial Committee for Public Order and Security, coordinates the strategy for public security in the Province together with the Police Superintender and other Provincial Commanders of the Police Force.
Presidente del Consiglio [Prime Minister] : constitutional organ that has the function of coordinating and directing the Council of Ministers. He is nominated by the President of the Italian Republic following a specific procedure that consists mostly in a series of consultations with Parties leaders and Houses Presidents. The Prime Minister creates the Government and draws up its program; he has also the power to propose the nomination of individual Ministers to the President of the Republic.
Presidente della Repubblica [President of the Republic] : he is the highest institutional office of the State and is elected by Parliament in a plenary sitting and the representatives of the Regions. All citizens over forty-nine years, who have full civil and political rights, can be elected to this office. Presidenti delle Camere [Houses Presidents] : the Presidents of the Chamber of Deputies and the Senate are the organs that preside over the functioning of each House.
A qualified majority is required for their election. Presidenzialismo [Presidential System] : form of government characterized by a rigid separation of authority.
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In this system the President is elected directly by the people and is contemporaneously Head of the State and Head of the Government. Procedimento legislativo [Legislative Procedure] : set of acts aiming at the laws making in which both Chambers take part. Procura della Repubblica [Office of the State Prosecutor] : office that is part of the Italian judicial system, to which the magistrates who carry out the functions of Public Prosecutor are assigned.
Promulgazione delle leggi [Enactment of Laws] : it is an act of laws control that must be carried out by the President of the Italian Republic within a month from the approval of both Chambers of Parliament. With enactment the law becomes enforceable; binding effects for citizens, however, only follow the publication on the Official Gazette of the Republic. Progetto di legge [Bill] : it is a normative text drafted in articles that is proposed for approval to one of two Chambers.
Provincia [Province] : territorial public body that is in between the Commune and the Region. At the head of each Province there is a President of the Provincial Government, who is elected directly by the citizens. Provvedimento amministrativo [Administrative Provision] : public authority act that provides for one or more concrete cases and with respect to one or more subjects. Pubblica Amministrazione [Public Administration] : the directly pre-ordained organs and activities that carry out the tasks and the aims considered to be of public interest by the State community.
Pubblicazione della legge [Publication of Law] : the act by which a law is officially made public. It is an act of communication that makes a law operative. A law is published — in the Official Gazette of the republic — within and not beyond thirty days from its enactment. These divisions are made up of prosecutors specialized in investigating organized crimes.
Their task is to ensure that the laws are observed, that justice is administered promptly and regularly, that the repression of crimes is promoted they are entitled to start a criminal action and that security measures are enforced. Quorum : legal number required for an assembly or a collegial body voting to be valid. Raccolta ufficiale degli atti normativi della Repubblica Italiana [Official collection of the normative acts of the Italian Republic] : contains legislative provisions of the State and all Government acts for solely documentary purposes.
Raccomandazioni [Recommendations] : this is the term used in European Community Law for acts emanated by the European Commission or by the Council of Europe that are not legally binding.
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They have the precise scope to oblige those to whom they are aimed to adopt a comportment judged to correspond more with the European Community interests. Referendum : direct popular consultation of the electorate through a vote whose object is a legal text or a political question.
It is the most important institution of direct democracy seeing as it is a tool by which the people exercises its sovereignty without the intercession of intermediaries. Our legal system envisages: a the constitutional referendum, for the adoption of laws that modify or add to the Constitution; b the repealing referendum, for the repeal of a law that is in force; c the territorial referendum, for the modification of Regional, Communal or Provincial territory; d the consultative referendum, non-legally binding on questions of particular relevance at the Regional level.
Regione [Region] : is a public territorial body which has legal and administrative competencies.
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A President who, depending on Regional Statutes, can be elected directly by the citizens or chosen by the Regional Assembly, heads it. Regolamenti [Regulations] : legal provisions that regulate specific matters within the limits set by the law. Governmental regulations are approved by a Presidential decree; ministerial regulations are approved by the competent Minister with a Ministerial decree.
Regolamenti comunitari [European Community Regulations] : are the most important normative sources for the European Community Law; they are legally binding and are applied directly in each State of the European Union. Repubblica [Republic] : form of government in which the Head of State, who can be a single person or a body, is elected by the people directly or indirectly, i.
Rinvio delle leggi Potere di [Returning of laws to the Chambers of Parliament, Power of] : power given by the Constitution to the President of the Republic; its exercise constitutes a veto that temporarily suspends the approval of a law by the Houses. Risoluzione [Resolution] : in the European Community Law consists in an act adopted by the European Parliament that makes a unanimous statement on a report presented to it by one of its Committees.
Risoluzione parlamentare [Parliamentary Resolution] : is a tool that has the function of parliamentary orientation. It can be presented in Assembly or in Committee. Sanzione [Sanction] : consequence fine, imprisonment, etc. Sentenza [Sentence] : jurisdictional provision containing a decision, pronounced by the judge in a trial. Normally it is the concluding or final act of a judgment.
Sindacati [Trade Unions] : collective organizations that represent the interest of specific categories of people for example the workers. Sindaco [Mayor] : individual, head of the Communal government and officer of the State. Sistema elettorale [Electoral System] : complex of rules and procedures through which, on the basis of votes cast by the citizens, seats are assigned to the elected members. Stato [State] : territorial organization that is created through the political organization of a people that are stably set in a territory and under the authority of a government.
Stato federale [Federal State] : political organization where power is split by a system that allows the Member-States to conserve some sovereignty. Tribunale Amministrativo Regionale T. Its jurisdiction covers the adjudication at first instance of administrative provisions appealed on grounds of legitimacy that is of compliance with the law damaging a legitimate interest that is, the interest of an individual corresponding to a general public interest.
In some contexts the Court has the power to adjudicate on the merits of a case or has exclusive jurisdiction. The Regional Administrative Court has competence within its own geographical jurisdictional area which coincides with regional boundaries and has its offices in the regional capital. It has several different divisions and decisions are made by a panel of three judges.
Appeals against its decisions are made to the Council of State. Testo Unico [Consolidation Act] : a collection of norms that regulate a particular matter. It is approved by a Presidential decree. Trattati internazionali [International Treaties] : are sources of international Law.
They are agreements through which the States establish common rules of behavior financial, fiscal agreements, etc. This Court may adjudicate as a collegiate court with three judges sitting or with only a single judge. The decisions of the Ordinary Court may be challenged on appeal to the Court of Appeal for reasons based on the facts giving rise to the dispute on the merits and before the Court of Cassation on appeal on grounds related either purely to the Law relating to legal legitimacy or to jurisdictional powers jurisdictional grounds. The Ordinary Court also exercises the functions of a Tutelary Court together with other specific functions laid down by the Law.
Tribunale dei Ministri [Ministers Court] : special jurisdictional organ — organized by lot in each Court that is a seat of an Appeal Court District — that judges the penal responsibility of Ministers. Unione Europea [European Union] : economic, political and institutional organization with very broad competencies to which the majority of European countries already belong.
Vacatio legis : period of time between the publication of a law and its coming into force. Voto diritto al [Vote, Right to] : it is the right, belonging to all citizens, to elect their representatives in Parliament or in other representative organs of the State Regions, Provinces, Communes, Districts. Welfare State : expression that indicates the system in which the State takes on the task of promoting the welfare of its citizens through institutional activity health care, social security pensions, etc.
Guide to Italian Legal Research and Resources on the Web - GlobaLex
F ree of charge databases. As a result of a brief survey of the Internet legal resources above mentioned, only few ones can be classified as free of charghe. As far as the Italian Legislation we can cite:. Through the Italian Parliament Web site we have access to the Italian Constitution in English, French, German, Spanish, Arabian , Constitutional laws, Italian State laws from — thirteenth Legislature , Italian State laws of particular relevance , laws of the Italian Regions and the autonomous Provinces from its establishment in full text , electoral laws , Rule of the Chamber , other Rules ;.
In relation to the Italian Jurisprudence we can consult:. In the field of the Italian Legal Literature :.